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Diseases and Their Constituents Assignment

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Week 1 Topic:

Your initial post (your response to the topic) must contain a citation. It is your ideas supported by research. There will be a deduction of 20 points for failure to cite a source within your initial post and to provide a reference at the end of your initial post.

Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words and each response must be a minimum of 200 words. Please double-check your word count. Only posts that meet the word count requirements receive credit. ″Genetic Screening″ Our understanding of genetics combined with our technological advances now can allow expecting parents to screen their embryos for any known genetic abnormalities and genetic diseases. QUESTION

Questions to discuss: What constitutes a disease? What can be some of the ethical issues that can come from genetic screening? How about using genetic engineering of the embryos to alter certain characteristics – what could be the benefit that comes form this? What are the dangers of this kind of genetic manipulation? Textbook: Garrett, B. (2015). Brain & behavior: An introduction to biological psychology (4th ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc. Responses: By Julie, Genetic testing involves a wide range of tests on DNA samples taken by blood, skin, nails, saliva, amniotic fluid and other tissues.

“There are three forms of genetic testing: diagnostic, carrier, and predictive testing. Diagnostic testing involves identifying current disease states. This includes prenatal and newborn screening—the most common forms of genetic testing. Carrier testing determines whether an individual carries a certain genetic trait.” (Fulda & Lykens, 2006). The moral and ethical implications of genetic testing have historical roots. In the 1900 individuals who were continuously ill or has mental problem were involuntarily sterilized, in 1970 several States required African-American children to be tested for sickle cell disease before entering school. Having sickle cell did not keep kids from attending school but refusing the test did. For cases like these many Americans feel like the development of genetic tests will enact more mandatory testing and thus creating a decrease in individual right to privacy which will lead to discrimination.

“It was realized that insurance companies could require testing and either refuse healthcare coverage, decrease benefits, or increase premiums.” (Fulda & Lykens, 2006). Employers could deny employment to individuals at risk of becoming deliberated or individuals who they suppose would require a lot of sick time based on predictive genetic testing. It poses a problem for healthcare practitioners who are to identify possible exposures and recommending testing. “If genetic disorders become reportable conditions due to the expansion of mandatory screening, public health practitioners could be faced with issues of disclosure.” (Fulda & Lykens, 2006). Genetic information should be private since it is related to a person’s identity and genetic makeup. Genetic testing does only affect a person but also everyone who shares that person’s DNA.

Formulating laws that would keep involuntary genetic testing and genetic discrimination is going to be hard and as we has I mentioned before it has caused some problems in the past. By Erica, What an interesting topic we have to discuss this week. What does genetic screening do for us? Genetic testing can indicate what diseases a person is likely to get and when (Patterson, 1987). Knowledge like that could save business and society perhaps billions of dollars in medical costs and increased employee efficiency (Patterson, 1987).

There are many people that think genetic screening is unethical. With the way our technology is advancing in so many ways, it can allow parents to check there embryos for known genetic abnormalities and genetic diseases, that sounds pretty amazing. What constitutes a disease? The true definition is very controversial to this day (Pies, 2015). I believe what constitutes a disease is a sickness/ illness that may have certain symptoms. Back to the topic of genetic screening. It is a very controversial topic to discuss with many people. If parents have the opportunity to screen to make sure their unborn child does not have any abnormalities or any genetic diseases.

There are many people also that concerned that genetic testing can be used to discriminate against victims (Patterson, 1987). Ongoing advances make it increasingly likely that scientists will someday be able to genetically engineer humans to possess certain desired traits (Simmons, 2008). The benefits from genetic screening is you would know if your child will suffer from a rare disease or any abnormalities. It sounds horrible because who are we to try and be “god”? There can dangers also for this kind of genetic manipulation. Enhancement in embryos raises moral issues involving both individuals and society (Simmons, 2008). First, does selecting for particular traits pose health risks that would not have existed otherwise (Simmons, 2008). I am stuck in between this topic, I am for and against it. I have kids and they are both very healthy, so I would want to know if there were going to be any issues during my pregnancy.

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