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Read the questions carefully and address all the parts of the questions you choose to answer. Please choose 2 questions out of the 4 to answer. Draw your answers from the information in the readings/class notes/videos when applicable.
You do not need to cite your sources in the text or at the end of your exam.

For every question, please write about ~2 pages double-spaced, answers 12 font. Write your answers in sentences and paragraphs, and make sure to break your answers into different paragraphs.

For every question, please write an approximately 2 pages double-spaced, 12 font
answer. You can go slightly over the suggested page length, or you can write slightly
shorter as well (1.5 pages).

Each question is worth 40 points. The grade breakdown of each part of the
questions is indicated. You don’t need to use colors in your answers.
Each question has several prompts. Make sure to answer all of these parts in
the 2 questions you choose to answer. They are indicated in different colors
for clarity, so make sure to answer the prompts in each color in your answer.
Please structure your answer based on these different prompts of the

  1. As systems of government, what are the main distinguishing features between
    presidential and parliamentary systems? What is another way of referring to
    these systems? When answering this question, explain their differences in terms
    of the following: The title of chief executive, how this chief executive selected,
    how the assembly is selected, whether the assembly can be dismissed before its
    fixed term or not, the possibility of removal of the chief executive before fixed
    term, and who holds the main authority to legislate. (18 points) While writing
    about these differences, elaborate on them when you can. List one country
    example for each type. Are there more parliamentary or presidential systems
    around the world? (8 points) After answering these questions, think about the
    example of France. How do we classify the system of government in France?
    Why? Does it have one of the above-mentioned two systems or not? (8 points)
    Does the UK have the same type of political system? Why or why not? Very
    briefly explain. (6 points)
  2. What are the main differences between SMD (also known as majoritarian or
    first-past-the-post) and the proportional representation (PR) electoral systems?
    Make sure to explain “district magnitude” and seat allocation in your answer
    among other differences, and give country examples for both electoral systems
    (16 points). Which system leads to overrepresentation of larger parties? (4
    points) What are some of the important consequences of having SMD versus
    proportional representation electoral systems? Be specific. (12 points). Then,
    connecting the topic of electoral systems with party systems: Is the SMD
    electoral system or the PR system more likely to produce multiparty systems
    (many parties entering the parliament)? Explain the reasoning. (8 points)
  3. What are the main characteristics of authoritarian regimes? Briefly explain. In
    your answer, make sure to highlight how authoritarian regimes are different
    than democracies (6 points). Then, list and briefly explain at least TWO TYPES of
    authoritarian regimes, and give country examples (18 points). Then, briefly list
    the four key indicators of authoritarian behavior (of leaders, etc.) according to
    the chapter by Levitsky and Ziblatt (2018 (6 points). Finally, briefly define the
    categorization of “illiberal regimes”. Give an example of a country in this
    category. (6 points) (Think of the last live session and the relevant book chapter)
    What are some other categorizations associated with/similar to illiberal
    regimes? (Think of the last live session here) (4 points).
  4. What are the main attributes of a democracy? Explain by referring to different
    conditions proposed by different authors (7 conditions by Dahl + additional 4
    conditions by Schmitter & Karl and O’Donnell) (10 points). What is an important
    think-tank (NGO) that categorizes countries in the world in terms of their
    democracy levels? Which two main dimensions of democracy are included when
    scoring and categorizing the countries? Specify (5 points). How does this thinktank classify the countries around the world: What are the three categories? (5
    points). Explain AT LEAST TWO of the domestic factors of democratization (12
    points), and then briefly explain what we mean by “waves” of democratization (8
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