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Cancer and its Causes Discussion Assignment

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Many cancers are associated with the same lifestyle choices such as, diet, exercise, alcohol consumption, and maintaining a proper body weight. Cancers such as esophageal, colon, breast, liver, ovarian, pancreas, and uterine all mention the importance of a healthy lifestyle to reduce your risk (Liebman, 2019). Maintaining a proper healthy weight has the ability to reduce the stress on your heart and give your body overall health. Exercise is a great way to reduce stress and providing the body with oxygen-rich blood supply, and means of keeping your body active. Eating healthy foods gives your body all the nutrition to build healthy cells and repair the body when injured or sick. It also allows the body to build a strong immune system to fight bacteria and illnesses when you do get sick. Choosing not to smoke and staying away from secondhand smoke can reduce your chances of heart damage, as well as lung damage. The carcinogens found in cigarettes are known to be deadly to the body. Limiting alcohol can reduce your risk of cancers as well. The damage to kidneys and liver can occur causing cirrhosis, cancers and even death. We cannot stop from aging, which is a factor for many cancers such as prostate, breast, colon, and esophageal, but we can make better choices on how we live. Being proactive in our health can prevent cancers or perhaps get early diagnosis, so we have a better chance of survival after diagnosis. Our environment we live in also plays a factor in getting cancer. Working in a mining industry, rubber manufacturing building, Agriculture and forestry careers, or those who are exposed to carcinogens such as formaldehyde, arsenic, or carbon monoxide. People who have higher exposure to the suns UV light are also at higher risk, such as pilots and lifeguards. 

Having a family history of some cancers cause family members to be at higher risk of being diagnosed, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreas, and prostate cancers (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). There are also some people who are born with mutations of the genes. It is possible that a mutation of the gene can make that gene stop working, and cause cancer. Again, living a healthy lifestyle and having a relationship with a primary doctor can reduce your chances of cancer, or could increase your risk of survival if you do get cancer (Karavasiloglou, Pestoni, Wanner, Faeh, & Rohrmann, (2019). Those who were diagnosed with cancer and maintained a healthy weight, maintained an exercise regiment, and ate a well-balanced diet had a less chance of mortality over those who did not life a healthy lifestyle with cancer (Karavasiloglou, Pestoni, Wanner, Faeh, & Rohrmann, (2019). Even if your family has a history of cancer, there are many ways to prevent it. Avoid risky behaviors, get regular care from a physician, eat a well-balanced diet (reduce red meat intake), stay away from tobaccos, be active and maintain a healthy weight.



Karavasiloglou, N., Pestoni, G., Wanner, M., Faeh, D., & Rohrmann, S. (2019). Healthy lifestyle is inversely associated with mortality in cancer survivors: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). PLoS ONE14(6), 1–11.

LIEBMAN, B. (2019). HOW TO LOWER YOUR RISK OF CANCER. (cover story). Nutrition Action Health Letter46(3), 3–7.

Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9thed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 97811192.

Lifestyle or behavior choices associated with cancer include smoking, diet, obesity, and physical activity (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). Some lifestyle choices can cause stress, which can also play a role in the development and course of cancer (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). People can prevent some cancers by having a balanced, nutritional diet, keep a healthy weight, and exercise at three to four times a week (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). If someone is smoking, completely stopping can begin to show improvement in the lungs. There are people that consider themselves sun worshippers, but too much sun can cause skin cancer. The way to prevent this type of cancer is to limit exposure to the sun’s UV rays, use a sun block with a high SPF, wear a wide-brim hat, and if possible, long sleeves and pants.


Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486

Cancer is a disease of the cells defined as uncontrolled cell proliferation resulting in malignant neoplasm (Sarafino & Smith, 2017). There are different types of cancer as well as different stages. Some cancers can be caused by behavioral factors and in those cases can be prevented. This is where lifestyle playes a huge role in the development of cancer in the body. For examble, someone who smokes cigarettes has a predisposition to lung cancer. The likelyhood of a smoker developing cancer is much higher than someone who does not smoke. There are other lifestyle choices that come with a higher risk for cancer such as living in an enviornment that includes ultraviolet radiation, chemical hazards, poor diet, obesity, and little physical activity (Sarafino & Smith, 2017).  


Sarafino, E., & Smith, T. (2017). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781119299486

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