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Biology Assignment Paraphrasing

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Paraphrase the following essay about Biology paper with a maximum of 1500 words

Molecular biology is a branch of biology that deals with gene transcription to produce RNA, RNA translation to protein, and determining the role of protein in cellular functions. Scientists have been working on ways to classify, separate, and make manipulation components in cells which are the RNA and DNA as well as protein since the 1960s (Raymond et al., 2009). Technology has progressed, and new advances in molecular and genetic biology are becoming available. The applicability and advantages of these approaches have a profound influence on society. There are also shortcomings in current genetic biology techniques (lberts et al., 2013).

According to Alberts et al. (2013), One of the current techniques in a molecular application is Reproductive Cloning.  Reproductive cloning is the process of making animals that share genetic identity with the donor animal by the means of the somatic cell nuclear transfer.  In reproductive cloning, the embryo that is newly created is put back to the uterine condition where it can make implantation and thrive.  One of the most well-known examples of reproductive cloning is the Dolly sheep.

Reproductive cloning takes a method of implanting the embryo that has been cloned to the uterus which can be an artificial or real one.  the technique has trial for more than 40 years trying to split the embryo where the single cell at an early stage is made to two cells that are developed as an identical embryo (Greenfield,2021).  The technique reached a significant mile in the 1990s when Dolly was born who was made through the SCNT process which comprises the complete removal of the whole nucleus from the somatic cell of the donor.

The process entails removing the nucleus from the somatic of an organism then the insertion of the nucleus is done to the egg cell where it has had removal of its nucleus processes called enucleation.  When the somatic nucleus is induced in the egg it gets stimulated by the use of electrical current and starts to split hence creating cloned embryo (Sengar, et al. 2018). The process of SCNT has undergone some refinement to reduce the impact of damage to the eggs. For example, one of the refinements is the use of polarized light to see the egg cell’s nuclear undergoing the extraction.

Future application of reproductive Cloning

The generation of viable duplication of somatic cell nuclear transfer in animals has led to more and more examination of the attaining the commitment to the cells specific tissue lineage when differentiation is taking place. Although there is some debate which is happening on the differentiation and trans differentiation reproductive cloning through SCNT has shown some purpose and applicability in research and animal production.

Reproductive Cloning has a future in the reproduction of livestock or in biotechnology to produce organs and tissues that can be used in human transplants. The processes called xenotransplantation will be facilitated by the technology of reproductive cloning. Where human beings will be infused with live-cell from non-human animals hence enhancing human life. There is also the application in research in the processes of identifying diseases and discovering solutions (Greenfield,2021). The technology will also be very critical in agriculture productions to match the growing demand for the population for food security and ecosystem balance.  That can be achieved through the generation of multiple progenies without necessarily having to make the animal undergo surgery.  It was observed that 10 patients in the United States die on the waiting list of getting a lifesaving important organ.  The study has indicated that xenoplantation can play the role of therapeutic for some diseases like neurodegenerative complications and diabetes in places where there are no human materials.

Advantages of reproductive Cloning

The advantage of reproductive cloning is that it has made some people fulfill their dreams of being parents and bearing children by the infertile parents. Technology is making it easy to achieve the cure for the most dangerous diseases. reproductive cloning also has made it easier to make a recovery from traumatic experiences (Alberts, et al. 2013). The technology will continue to aid the research on the issues related to gene transfer and its applicability to human lives.

Disadvantages of Reproductive Cloning

There are some drawbacks of using speech cloning techniques. Because of these limitations, it is less competitive in certain ways. Even if they may have the same genetic material, cloned organisms such as animals do not necessarily look the same. The organism’s ability to respond to changes is often influenced by the climate (Watson et al., 2007). For example, Cc, a female calico who differed from her mother, was the first cat to be cloned. This can be explained by the fact that the color and pattern of a cat’s coat have their own set of genes. The biological events that result in the inactivation of the X chromosomes in each female cat cell decide the coat color genes are turned on and off. The color of the coat is determined by the distribution of sex chromosome inactivation, which occurs at random.

The reproductive efficiency of reproductive cloning has been deemed ineffective, and the majority of cloned organisms, especially animal embryos, are unable to develop into healthy individuals. Dolly, for example, was just a clone created from 277 embryos, demonstrating the technique’s sluggish efficacy (Williams, 2015). Adding safety issues to the mix creates a major roadblock for the use of reproductive cloning. The researchers also discovered some negative health effects in cloned sheep and other species. The animals have various abnormally large sizes as well as abnormalities in various organs such as the liver, brain, and heart. There have also been concerns of premature aging, which has caused problems with the immunity of the animals or the cloned organism.

In the chromosomes of that cloned Cell, there is also a drawback with the techniques. The edge of the chromosomes which are referred to as Telomeres shrink at the same time the cell pad increase in size as the rounds of division happens. Over time the Telomeres decrease in size to the extent that the cell cannot grow anymore and eventually it dies. That makes the common occurrence that happens in the cell type. This means that cloning cells from an old animal or organism will reduce the Cell’s lifespan. Dolly, for example, was cloned from a 6-year-old sheep cell, had shorter chromosomes than other sheep. She died at the age of six, which is the average age for a sheep with healthy cells and chromosomes (Raymond et al., 2009). This eliminates the factor of continuity and the other aspects of slow reproduction, which cloning techniques tend to speed up.

Legal and Environmental Issues

There are some legal and environmental issues with the procedure. The cloning technique has been considered one of the most supervised technologies, and it has gained widespread acceptance and is now widely used in various aspects of laboratories around the world. However, in the case of cloning and therapeutics, there are some serious ethical concerns, especially when the technology is applied to humans (Williams, 2015). Reproductive cloning will result in developing a genetically identical person to an existing or previous human. This has caused a conflict with long-standing religious and social virtues and ideals regarding humanity integrity, because of which people’s rights, identity, and autonomy have been compromised. While some argue that efficient cloning can help some single couples achieve their parental dreams, there is a disconnect of virtues perceived as immoral. People see cloning as a way to avoid passing on a harmful gene that runs in their families without having to go through embryo trials or selection.

Reproductive cloning is viewed as the killing of human embryos in the test tube as a means of alleviating human suffering from a specific disease or injury. Opponents contend that using procedures to harvest embryonic stems is unethical, even for medical purposes. There have also been environments where the use of cloning to make gene multiplication has raised significant concerns about the environmental impacts, especially where some disease etiologies are linked to gene cloning (Wang et al., 2018). A gene-controlled environment has increased the number of animals and plants unable to resist major diseases. These environmental concerns have raised questions about the future of cloned organisms and how they can be better managed. Animal health has also been a source of concern due to a lack of originality. The chain of animal cloning followed by eating such animals for food has been linked to cancer and diabetes (Wang et al. 2018). Since it is difficult to predict the weather of a cloned organism, certain environments can be too harsh for them to adapt to, causing them to have a harder time surviving. Some species may become extinct due to cloning, which does not enable animals to live long lives.

In conclusion, with the increased need for SCNT recognition and matching, expression cloning is becoming a commonly used technique in molecular biology. In addition, an increasing population necessitates different plant and animal alterations to maintain environmental balance. There will be further planned actions on the research on how well the technology can be implemented to be more effective, as the thorough methodology has posed some questions.

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